MANUSMRITI (Hindi Edition) by [SHASTRI, TIKAKAR - DR. Click here to browse eBooks by Surendra Mohan Pathak, Munshi Premchand, Devdutt Pattanaik. मनुष्य ने जब समाज व राष्ट्र्र के अस्तित्व तथा महत्त्व कौ मान्यता दी, तो उसके कर्तव्यों और अधिकारों की व्याख्या. Manusmriti hindi book consist of codes and conduct which where framed in different period of time so their applicability is not universal. Though.
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Manusmriti. You are about to download Manusmriti hindi book pdf for free – Don't forget to like us on facebook & share with your friends to keep us motivated to. Manusmriti. bySwami, Pt. Tulsiram. Publication LanguageHindi. Book Source: Digital Library of eBooks and Texts. Uploaded by Public. Sanskrit Text & Hindi Translation of Manu Smriti. IdentifierManuSmritHindi- GpDwivedi. Identifier-arkark://t1pg2f70c. OcrABBYY.
But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of himself, he created all beings.
Because those six kinds of minute particles, which form the creator's frame, enter a-sri these creatures , therefore the wise call his frame sarira, the body. That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the framer of all beings, the imperishable one.
But from minute body -framing particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this world , the perishable from the imperishable. Among them each succeeding element acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place in the sequence each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess.
But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all created beings , even according to the words of the Veda. He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice.
But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the due performance of the sacrifice. Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven ground. Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to call these beings into existence.
Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs of opposites , such as pain and pleasure. But with the minute perishable particles of the five elements which have been mentioned, this whole world is framed in due order. But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each kind of beings , that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation.
Whatever he assigned to each at the first creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung afterwards spontaneously to it. As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings resume in new births their appointed course of action.
But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that female he produced Virag.
But know me, O most holy among the twice-born, to be the creator of this whole world , whom that male, Virag, himself produced, having performed austerities.
Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and thereby called into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings, They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power, Yakshas the servants of Kubera, the demons called Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas or musicians of the gods , Apsarases the dancers of the gods , Asuras, the snake-deities called Nagas and Sarpas, the bird-deities called Suparnas and the several classes of the manes, Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect rohita and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds, 39 Horse-faced Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things.
Thus was this whole creation , both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high-minded ones by means of austerities and at my command, each being according to the results of its actions. But whatever act is stated to belong to each of those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their order in respect to birth. Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are born from the womb.
From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic animals. From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other creatures of that kind which are produced by heat. All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants are those which, bearing many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit; Those trees which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati lords of the forest ; but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha.
But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips.
These plants which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts in former existences , possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain.
The various conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with that of Brahman, and to end with that of these just mentioned immovable creatures. When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other.
When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to sleep. But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions and mind becomes inert. When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation.
When this soul has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs of sensation , but performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame.
When, being clothed with minute particles only , it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united with the fine body , a new corporeal frame. Thus he, the imperishable one, by alternately waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable creation.
But he having composed these Institutes of the sacred law , himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I taught them to Mariki and the other sages. Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me. Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 'Listen!
Six other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self-existent Svayambhu , and who have severally produced created beings, These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable creation , each during the period allotted to him.
Eighteen nimeshas twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha , thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many muhurtas one day and night. The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night being intended for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion. A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights. The dark fortnight is their day for active exertion, the bright fortnight their night for sleep. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is as follows : the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night.
But hear now the brief description of the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages of the world, yuga according to their order.
They declare that the Krita age consists of four thousand years of the gods ; the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one in each. These twelve thousand years which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four human ages, are called one age of the gods.
But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods makes one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length.
Those only, who know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after the completion of one thousand ages of the gods and that his night lasts as long, are really men acquainted with the length of days and nights. At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal.
Mind, impelled by Brahman's desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.
But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour; And from light, modifying itself, is produced water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.
The before-mentioned age of the gods, or twelve thousand of their years , being multiplied by seventy-one, constitutes what is here named the period of a Manu Manvantara. They were mainly laborers, peasants, artisans, and servants of the upper classes. In general the three upper castes were of fair complexion and the Sudras of swarthy complexion. So, it may be conceived that the three upper castes were Aryans and the Sudras indigenous people mainly proto-Australoid or Dravida whom the Aryans subjugated while invading the Indian subcontinent and incorporated these vanquished black people into the Aryan hierarchy as the fourth and serving class for their own interest.
The first mention of these four castes is to be found in the Purushu Sukta of the Rig Veda the most ancient religious text of ancient India. Caste system in Rig Veda was considered of divine origin. Later on Manusmriti the earliest dharmasastra of law book of ancient India elaborated the caste system. The epics Ramayana and Mahabharata and the Arthasastra of Kautilya also mention the caste system.
Modern caste division in India has its origin in this ancient caste system. Caste System in Manusmriti Manusmriti considers caste to be based on birth and heredity and the concept is derived from the Vedic concept cited above. Manu opines that the creator has assigned specific duties to specific classes of people and to substantiate his views he repeats the Vedic concept viz. So, they have different functions in all the ages.
To quote: 1. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate duties and occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet3. In all castes those children only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal in castes and married as virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste as their fathers. The lowest caste, viz. Manu opines that if a person belonging to any caste relinquishes his assigned duties and adopts some forbidden duty, he will be degenerated, unless he is compelled to do so by unavoidable pressure of circumstances.
To quote: It appears that Manu emphasized that division of labour according to castes should be based on heredity. Caste System in Mahabharata From certain slokas of the epic Mahabharata, it may appear at first sight that the epic insisted on determination of caste of a person by his propensities and talents and not by birth. Those propensities, again, lead a living being to every direction. Sec, p A deeper look would make it clear that this was relevant to jatis,.
It may be conceived that there was no restriction on free movement among the sub-castes but this was not true for movements among the four major castes.
The epic insists that economic activities like agriculture, trade etc. This is different from social division of labour on the basis of castes. It is the division of labour within each category of production on the basis of efficiency. The major social division of labor prescribed in the epic is based on the basic Indian rule — division of the society into four major castes viz.
Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra and assignment of specific duties to each caste. Mahabharata, however, mentions that a Brahmana by birth would be degraded if he fails to abide by the rules prescribed for his caste. The Brahmin who weds a Sudra woman, who becomes vile in conduct or a dancer or a village servant or does other improper acts, becomes a Sudra.
Whether he recites the Vedas or not, O king, if he does such improper acts, he becomes equal to a Sudra and on occasions of feeding he should be assigned a place amongst Sudras.
Such Brahmanas become equal to Sudras, O king, and should be discarded on occasions of worshipping the Gods. Those names which are applied among men to slaves and dogs and wolves and other beasts, are applied, O son of Pandu, to the Brahmana who is engaged in pursuits that are improper for him.
There is, however, no rule for up gradation of a person from a lower to an upper caste. Sudras were being exploited by the three upper castes. Manu prescribes for prohibition of wealth accumulation by a Sudra. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able to do it ; for a Sudra who has acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas. Still the Sudras were part of the Aryan social hierarchy.
On the other hand, the mlechchas or outcastes from which the modern dalits descended were not considered to be part of the Aryan social hierarchy.
The origin of these mlecchas has clearly been described in Manusmriti. Manu defines them as mixed castes originating from intermarriage of the four castes. Manu specified the functions of these mixed-castes rigidly. These mixed castes originated from inter-caste marriages, and went on ramifying with increasing branches with the passage of time.
The origins of some sub-castes are described by Manu in slokas All these castes have been assigned the most difficult, risky and dirty tasks and considered as untouchables and to reside far away from the habitations of the mainstream of the four basic castes. Functions of some mixed castes are described by Manu in the slokas: They are activities which even the Sudras would not take part in.
They are to live like slaves, many of them are to live outside the dwelling areas of the four Aryan castes without any right to enter these areas. They are to be despised by the upper castes although their activities were essential for various purposes like cleaning of dirt, carcasses etc. There were also various restrictions about their foods, garments and dwelling places and their properties or rightful possessions.
In fact, they were destined by sastra rules to live subhuman and abominable lives. Detail is given in the Appendix-I. The economic and social status of the outcastes has remained almost unaltered over millennia. Trials and tribulations of history have brought about many changes in this subcontinent, but they have not left any imprint of the miserable plight of the outcastes.
In modern India, the roots of the dalits are to be traced back to the mixed castes and mlecchas of ancient India.
Now let us have a glimpse of the economic and social status of the dalits, the descendants of the mlecchas of ancient India, in modern India after more than half a century of Independence from the British Rule. The social and economic discrimination against the dalits are interrelated and exploitation takes various inhuman forms and even today they are mostly treated by the privileged classes as sub-humans to be utilized but at the same time despised as in the ancient times.
The major forms these discriminations and exploitations assumed are: Untouchability In most of the States in India, dalits are forced to live in segregated slums on the outskirts of villages and the location of the slums is determined by economic factors, viz. Some of the examples of this heinous crime against humanity are given below. In many villages of the country, the dalit postmen are not permitted to cycle through the upper caste sections and if they violate this edict, they are severely beaten up and do not get any protection of existing laws against such violence.
In many areas teashops keep separate cups and glasses for the dalits. Various underhand methods are adopted by the upper castes to deprive the dalits of their democratic right of voting.
Dalits have been deprived of their rights over common properties through privatization of these properties. Untouchability is also to be found in many educational institutions in most of the States in India. Dalits are not permitted to enter the temples in many areas.
In many areas even high level dalit employees find it difficult to hire a rented house unless they change their surnames. But still the practice continues to determine the socio-economic and religious standings of the dalits in India.
Dalits are not generally permitted to change the occupational structures into which they are born Rao, Anupam, ; Devi, Vidya, Rape of Dalit Girls Rape of dalit girls is a common crime in rural India and the upper caste people do not follow the rules of untouchability in this case.
Sometimes this serves the upper castes in two ways — fulfillment of perverted desires and punishment for protests or attempts to exercise political rights by dalit women Devi, Vidya, Practice of Bonded Labor System Bonded labor in India, also known as Debt Bondage and Peonage, arises from taking loans by the poor which cannot be repaid and the borrower according to the terms and conditions for default is obliged to serve as the slave of the lender. The sons and daughters of the miserable borrower in most of the cases inherit the slavery due to un-repaid loans by parents.
Once a dalit or for that matter any other poor person takes loan from a money lender who, in rural India, is in most of the cases also a big or medium land owner and trader in crops , he falls into a snare from which he would never be able to free himself.
The amount of loan goes on snowballing through accumulation of interest and more through manipulations for example putting additional zeros to the right of the original amount and ultimately according to the terms and conditions of borrowing which the illiterate borrower could never read or understand at the time of borrowing , the borrower becomes the slave of the lender for life and also for his descendants after his death Srivastava, Ravi, S.
But the heinous practice still rampant in rural India. The basic objective of this article is to get down to the depth of human psychosis that gives rise to the exploitative and discriminatory socio-economic practices as depicted above or in any other form prevalent in other societies, ancient or modern.
Section-V Human Modes and Psychosis of Exploitation — the Samkhya Concepts According to Samkhya Philosophy2, human consciousness is a part of material manifestation of Nature and it is the combination of three modes viz. All our mental and intellectual faculties originate from these three basic modes Ballantyne I. Accordingly all individuals may be classified broadly into three major categories detail given in Appendix-II.
Of the three modes viz. The practice of creating rules for virtual slavery of the majority in the name of religion or divine providence, originated in time immemorial from the basic human mode which may be termed rajas in accordance with Samkhya. The situation may be broadly depicted to have a first hand idea in the following manner. Now let us take up the relevant aspects from Samkhya proper and explain the above matter in detail and more deeply and elaborately. If one is capable of grasping the essence of this aspect of Samkhya he would not only be able to explain and devise remedial measures for dalit issues or similar exploitative mechanisms but also that pertaining to most other maladies human society has been afflicted with since ancient times or originated during historical past or even in recent times.
The most elaborate analysis of aphorisms of Samkhya is found in the Indian philosophical text a part of the epic Mahabharata Gita. Let us have a glimpse of the analysis of Samkhya in Gita. Gita and Samkhya The sacred Hindu scripture Gita describes in detail the various aspects of these basic attributes Telang Gita: Nature fetters the eternal individual soul to the body by the three modes viz.
He may undertake austerity, acts of sacrifice and charity, but only to get something in return revenue, power, social positions etc. He cannot distinguish between righteousness and unrighteousness, and right and wrong action. A tamasika person is full of inertia leading to ignorance, delusion, slowness of mind, carelessness, laziness, inactivity, excessive sleep, vulgarity, malice. He performs sacrifices only as a mechanistic ritual, observes austerity with foolish stubbornness, with self-torture or for harming others, and undertakes charity without paying respect to the receiver.
His head is full of irrational and baseless knowledge, fear, grief, despair, fatalism and he undertakes action out of delusion, disregarding his abilities and loss or injury to others. He is always depressed and procrastinating. He accepts unrighteousness as righteousness and thinks everything to be that which it is not. In a country like India tamasika forces manifest mainly through: 1. Religious and Other Superstitions 2. Unnecessary and Burdensome Religious Rites 3.
Blind Devotion to Religious Priests and Gurus 4. Blind Devotion to All Categories of Celebrities 6. Poverty and Illiteracy Ripus: Now let us take up another concept of Hindu philosophy, viz. In general ripus means enemies. These ripus in Hindu philosophy are excesses of some basic instincts or reflexes of human mind or intellect.
They are necessary for our material existence. So as such they are not enemies. But for beneficial effects they must be balanced and kept under our control. If they are in excess, they become our enemies and result in disastrous effects both for us and for the human society.
The western scholars often mistakenly translate ripu as sin.
But ripus are not sins, rather sources of sins or vices. Those who are skilled in the Yogas say that the realization of the identity between the Jivatma and the Paramatma is Yoga O Sinless One! The enemies to this Yoga are six; and they are lust, anger, greed, ignorance, vanity and jealousy. Ripus under rajasika: for rajasika persons the ripus combine to result insatiable greed and power mongering and to dominate over other persons and society.
The basic instincts, pertaining to the ripus, can be used for good or bad, but by themselves they are neutral. Sexual desire is normal and good, but sexual obsession is harmful. Controlled anger is also a necessary element that makes us human -- without it we cannot have respectability.
Greed is a form of desire -- it can be an insatiable foolish desire or positive desire that can be used as an incentive for progress. Likewise, vanity and pride are necessary for self respect and envy can foster healthy competition. If the basic instincts are kept under control, they are always beneficial, but if they get the better of us, they turn into enemies and ruin us in the short or long run.
Gita considers Kama in the wider sense it means the desire for worldly pleasures , Krodha anger and Lobha greed the most serious among the ripus.
Therefore, one must learn to give up these three. Gita describes how ripus originate from the perverted attachment to worldly pleasures and lead one on to the path of destruction. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects, and anger comes from unfulfilled desires. Gita: 2. The mind is bewildered by delusion. Reasoning is destroyed when the mind is bewildered.
One falls down from the right path when reasoning is destroyed. The ripus take various major forms under different modes. For satvika persons they are fully controlled and turn out benign — they reside in such a person in perfect harmony with ethical living. To him Kama, in the narrow sense, gets sublimated by love and associated with birth of children, and in the wider sense it turns into desire for knowledge and wisdom; Krodha becomes reserved demeanor that inspires respect in the honest persons, and awe in the miscreants, Lobha turns into hankering for getting access of the unknown eternal being; Mada turns into dignity, confidence and self respect; Moha turns into strict adherence to ethical and righteous living; Matsarya jealousy gets converted into love, fellow feeling and philanthropy.
For a rajasika person, Kama in the narrow sense takes the form of preoccupation with sensual pleasure, and in the wider sense it leads to insatiable craving for power and wealth by just or unjust means ; Krodha takes the form of secret planning and conspiracy for taking reprisals; Lobha gets associated with achieving all sorts of material pleasures, power, fame etc.
For a tamasika person Kama is associated with perverse and brutal sexual desire, forceful violation of the opposite sex, incest and unnatural sex behaviour. His Krodha is blind and destructive, both for others and for himself; his Lobha centers on all conceivable dirty and shabby pleasures — addictions to drugs, alcohol etc.
For him, Mada leads to false vanity and day-dreaming; Moha is full of superstitions, baseless knowledge and inactivity; Matsarya burns his soul and goads him to inflict harm to others. For him the ripus result in inertia, fatalism and submission to slavery. The rajasika people try to force the majority to languish in the tamasika state so as to rule them and build up their economic and social power by enslaving them and extracting their surplus products.
Coming to our context, the people in the upper strata of the society are in the rajasika state and the dalits are forced to be at the lowest echelon of the tamasika state through poverty, illiteracy, social customs, false religious beliefs, and legal measures by the state machinery which is being controlled by the rajasika minority.
In earlier systems in India the rajasika feudal or semi-feudal rulers, the priests, and the businessmen thrived on the economic exploitation social and political deprivations were necessary to perpetuate the economic exploitation of the lower tamasika strata, mainly the dalits. In the era of globalization, politicians and political parties in our country have turned into mere characters in a puppet-show, the operators being the capitalists -- now-a- days, the rajasika Multinational Corporations MNCs , who want to bind the entire world with the chains of slavery.
Within the LDCs, the politicians who themselves are slaves of the capitalists thrive on slavery of the tamasika masses. In the next section we are going to look into the possible way out of the dilemma.
All these efforts have turned out to be inefficacious mainly because they have looked upon the basic issues superficially failing to comprehend the basic cause which lies deep in human psychology. Thereafter an attempt would be made to eke out a probable solution in the light of the Samkhya Philosophy.
Section-VI The Way Out 1 The Marxian Approach for quotes see Appendix-IV Now as regards the cause of oppression, exploitation, and increasing poverty and inequality along with material progress Marx and Engels held class society and the institution of private property responsible.
But because of either superficial observation or obsession with some specific motive, they failed to visualize that these are but manifestations of some deeper cause inherent in human nature. They, in fact, identified the effect as the cause and lapsed into the tautological fallacy.
They also invented the concept of class struggle as the sole cause of transformation of human society from one stage to another and also found in it the ultimate means of resolving the problem Marx and Engels, , ch-1, PP.